Phoenicians, Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, Jews, Arabs and Chinese were attracted by a variety of commodities, especially spices and cotton fabrics.. Here is the list of 23 Historical Places in Kerala. Caption : A close-up picture of famous historian M.G.S. The theoretical difference in the communist party, i.e. They truly manifests the rich cultural heritage of Kerala. List of notable or famous historians from India, with bios and photos, including the top historians born in India and even some popular historians who immigrated to India.  After his death, in the absence of a strong central power, the state was fractured into about thirty small warring principalities under Nair Chieftains; most powerful of them were the kingdom of Samuthiri in the north, Venad in the south and Kochi in the middle.. During the early part of Kulasekhara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvananthapuram was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century and thus the region â¦ "Kerala." Colonialism and foreign invasion has â¦ On 1 July 1949, the two states were merged to form Travancore-Cochin. The Ays were the earliest ruling dynasty in southern Kerala, who, at their zenith, ruled over a region from Nagercoil in the south to Thiruvananthapuram in the north.  Nonetheless, the Portuguese suffered severe setbacks due to attacks by Samoothiri Maharaja's forces, especially naval attacks under the leadership of admirals of Kozhikode known as Kunjali Marakkars, which compelled them to seek a treaty. The Mushika kingdom existed in northern Kerala, while the Ays ruled south of the Chera kingdom. Here we list some of the famous churches in Kerala that are worth paying a visit-#1 Arthunkal Church (St. Andrewâs Basilica, Arthunkal) St Andrews Basilica aka Arthunkal Church was built in 16 th century by Portugese missionaries. The magnificent forts, palaces and architectural monuments symbolises different dynasties, communities that existed in Kerala. He was born in Sabines and was opposing the old Roman aristocracy, and was supporting Julius Caesar. So this post is dedicated to all the female historians who are currently killing it in their respective fields and inspiring children of today (and me!) Al-Biruni (AD 973 - 1048) must have been the first writer to call this state Malabar. 2. Search for a Photo, Category & Sub Category, Photo ID, Special Collection, Keywords, Personalities, ", Lankina, Tomila, and Lullit Getachew. Confluence of religions However, the dominance of Middle East traders was challenged in the European Age of Discovery. It proclaims that Parasurama, an Avatar of Mahavishnu, threw His battle axe into the sea. , The region of Kerala was possibly engaged in trading activities from the 3rd millennium BCE with Sumerians and Babylonians. The two kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin joined the Union of India after independence in 1947. European trading interests of the Dutch, French and the British East India companies took centre stage during the colonial wars in India. cites a stone inscription discovered at, Varier, M. R. Raghava. to pursue their love of all things historical. The Cheras were mentioned as Ketalaputo (Keralaputra) on an inscribed edict of emperor Ashoka of the Magadha Empire in the 3rd century BCE, as Cerobothra by the Greek Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and as Celebothras in the Roman encyclopedia Natural History by Pliny the Elder. He is reputed to have founded four mathas ("monasteries"), which helped in the historical development, revival and spread of Advaita Vedanta. In the second half of the 12th century, two branches of the Ay Dynasty: Thrippappur and Chirava, merged into the Venad family and established the tradition of designating the ruler of Venad as Chirava Moopan and the heir-apparent as Thrippappur Moopan. Eradis subsequently moved their capital to the coastal marshy lands and established the kingdom of Kozhikode They later assumed the title of Samudrāthiri ("one who has the sea for his border") and continued to rule from Kozhikode. © 2004 The Hindu Images, All Rights Reserved. The contact with Romans might have given rise to small colonies of Jews and Syrian Christians in the chief harbour towns of Kerala.  They intermarried with local people, resulting in formation of the Muslim Mappila community. Adi Shankara (CE 789), one of the greatest Indian philosophers, is believed to be born in Kaladi in Kerala, and consolidated the doctrine of advaita vedānta.  As a result, many temples were constructed across Kerala, which according to M. T. Narayanan "became cornerstones of the socio-economic society".  Thus, Rama Varma Kulasekara, the last emperor of Chera dynasty, is probably the founder of the Venad royal house, and the title of Chera kings, Kulasekara, was thenceforth adopted by the rulers of Venad. During the early Middle Ages, Namboodiri Brahmin immigrants arrived in Kerala and shaped the society on the lines of the caste system. The Portuguese took advantage of the rivalry between the Samoothiri and Rajah of Kochi—they allied with Kochi and when Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India in 1505, he established his headquarters at Kochi. Please provide background or any detail on RSS attacks on Christians particularly in Chitoor, Kerala", https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2019.1601005, Kerala Modernity: Ideas, Spaces and Practices in Transition, Malabar on the Columbia University, New York website, About the Dutch colonial presence in Kerala, Nediyiruppu Swaroopam (Kingdom of Calicut), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Kerala&oldid=998617054, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Abraham, Renu Elizabeth. ", Hunter, Thelma. A series of attacks by the Pandyas between the 7th and 8th centuries caused the decline of Ays although the dynasty remained powerful until the beginning of the 10th century. However, these reforms were largely non-effective to mark a greater change in the society as these changes were not effected to a large extend. During his reign, the Portuguese managed to dominate relations with Kochi and established a number of fortresses along the Malabar Coast.  M.G.S. "Legacies of matriliny: The place of women and the 'Kerala model'. The Treaty of Mavelikkara was signed by the Dutch and Travancore in 1753, according to which the Dutch were compelled to detach from all political involvements in the region. Wm. Franke, Richard W., Pyralal Raghavan and T. M. Thomas Isaac.  It was the first time a Communist government was democratically elected to power anywhere in the world. 15 Famous Historical Monuments In Kerala 1. However, Portuguese attacks on Arab properties in his jurisdiction provoked the Samoothiri and finally led to conflict. 3. Photo: S. Ramesh Kurup 29-12-2003, *The image belongs to single owner for purchased period of time; actual size will be downloaded, Photographer :S Ramesh kurup also host the famous boating festival during Onam and attract tourists from all over India as well as from abroad. "The ‘Kudumbashree woman’ and the Kerala model woman: Women and politics in contemporary Kerala.". This list may not reflect recent changes . "Back from Shingly: Revisiting the premodern history of Jews in Kerala.  The Chera kingdom consisted of a major part of modern Kerala and Kongunadu which comprises western districts of modern Tamil Nadu like Coimbatore and Salem. Kerala, known as Godâs own country is a touristâs paradise. Kerala is famous for its unique geography, tranquil backwaters, unspoiled beaches, art forms and spices. The end of Second Chera dynasty in the 12th century marks the independence of the Venad. Arabs also had trade links with Kerala, starting before the 4th century BCE, as Herodotus (484–413 BCE) noted that goods brought by Arabs from Kerala were sold to the Jews at Eden.  It was mentioned as one of four independent kingdoms in southern India during Ashoka's time, the others being the Cholas, Pandyas and Satyaputras. At its zenith these Later Cheras ruled over a territory comprising the whole of modern Kerala and a smaller part of modern Tamil Nadu. As in other parts of ancient India, Buddhism and Jainism co-existed with early Hindu beliefs during the first five centuries. Communism in Kerala. The opposition called on Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to seize control of the state government. From the Kodungallur line of the Cheras rose the Kulasekhara dynasty, which was established by Kulasekhara Varman. This church is more than 500 years old and is one of the most famous churches in Kerala. ", Jeffrey, Robin. Much more controversial was an effort to impose state control on private schools, such as those run by the Christians and the NSS, which enrolled 40% of the students. This place possesses a marvelous statue of St. Sebastian imported from Italy, and is looked upon as the largest shrine of the St. Sebastian. If you're trying to find out the names of famous Indian historians then this list is the perfect resource for you. , The maritime spice trade monopoly in the Indian Ocean stayed with the Arabs during the High and Late Middle Ages. Kerala offers a wide number of attractions for travelers, including backwaters if Kerala , verdant hill stations in Kerala and great beaches as well. According to him, Muziris could be reached in 40 days from the Red Sea ports of Egypt purely depending on the South west monsoon winds. Buckingham Canal (a small canal between Tangasseri Lighthouse and the cemetery) is situated very close to the Portuguese Cemetery. Anamudi or Anai Mudi is the highest peak of Kerala with an altitude of 2,695 m. It is also the highest peak of Western Ghats. One such legend is the retrieval of Kerala from the sea, by Parasurama, a warrior sage. Even though Sankara was against all caste systems, in later years his name was used extensively by the Brahmins of Kerala for establishing caste system in Kerala. His entire kingdom was then a land of immense prosperity and happiness. No country in the world can claim equality with Ayurveda in Kerala.  In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, Communist-led government came to power, under E. M. S. Yes, I am going to deliver information about Historical Places of Kerala.  The most powerful kingdom of Kerala during the colonial period, Travancore, was developed through the expansion of Venad by Mahahrajah Marthanda Varma, a member of the Thrippappur branch of the Ay Dynasty who ascended to the throne in the 18th century. Photo: S. Ramesh Kurup 29-12-2003 Please provide some background as to the politics of the State of Kerala, particularly clashes between the CPIM and INC or DIC or their student arms.  In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Palakkad Raja sought the help of Hyder Ali of Mysore. In 1919, consequent to their victory in World War I, the British abolished the Islamic Caliphate and dismembered the Ottoman Empire. 332 KB, City : KOZHIKODE There are many historical places in state Kerala. Onam is one of the most famous and colorful festivals in Kerala, celebrated with much fervor and gaiety. Also known as Thiruvonam, the festival is celebrated by all citizens of Kerala, irrespective of caste, class, creed, community and social â¦ Kerala, the Godâs Own Country, is dream destination of many Indians. In 1936, Sree Chithira Thirunal Balaramavarma, the ruler of Travancore, issued the Temple Entry Proclamation, declaring the temples of his kingdom open to all Hindu worshipers, irrespective of caste. â One of the most beautiful churches in Kerala, The Golden dome atrium is a landmark and the beautiful statue of Jesus in the Church complex with angels on either sides is a must-see. However, the Chera capital, Mahodayapuram, fell in the subsequent attack, which compelled the Chera king, Rama varma Kulasekara, to shift his capital to Kollam. During the early part of Kulasekhara period, the southern region from Nagercoil to Thiruvananthapuram was ruled by Ay kings, who lost their power in the 10th century and thus the region became a part of the Cheras. , The inhibitions, caused by a series of Chera-Chola wars in the 11th century, resulted in the decline of foreign trade in Kerala ports. The term Kerala was first epigraphically recorded as Ketalaputo (Cheras) in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Ashoka of Magadha. Maritime contacts Until the end of the 11th century, it was a small principality in the Ay Kingdom. The Madras Presidency was reorganised to form Madras State in 1947. 7. Chathukulam, Jos, and Joseph Tharamangalam.  Shankara travelled across the Indian subcontinent to propagate his philosophy through discourses and debates with other thinkers. Revolution and martyrs in the making of a political tradition in Kerala.". As a result, the land of Kerala arose, and thus was reclaimed from the waters.  It is also mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It is also famous for its charming houseboats, sprawling tea plantations, unique eco-tourism, magnificent architecture, Ayurvedic treatments and unforgettable culinary experiences. Only a few of the books of this history of Rome have survived. Malabar and South Kanara districts were part of British India's Madras Presidency. The British restored Mahé, India to the French as a part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris. Apart from the natural beauty of Kerala I have handpicked 7 Famous Kerala handicrafts, and take along souvenirs. But here you will get travel information about only those places which have historical importance. Web. Search for best tour packages for popular historical sites and heritage sites in Kerala, Popular Kerala heritage and historical holiday packages, Cultural heritage sites in Kerala He was forced to shift his capital (c. CE 1405) further south. Bekal Fort Edakkal Caves, Wayanad.. An archaeologist stumbled upon the caves in 1890 that dates back to the Neolithic age. The state of Kerala was created in 1956 from the former state of Travancore-Cochin, the Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South Canara District of Madras state. Photo Courtesy: Thejas Panarkandy "Matriliny, Marxism, and the birth of the communist party in Kerala, 1930-1940.  The value of Rome's annual trade with the region was estimated at around 50,000,000 sesterces. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage) and ara (dolmen). Kerala â The Land Of Gods; is situated at the south-west corner of India. His works in Sanskrit concern themselves with establishing the doctrine of advaita (nondualism).  Rock engravings in the Edakkal Caves in Wayanad are thought to date from the early to late Neolithic eras around 5000 BCE. He describes Kozhikode as "one of the great ports of the district of Malabar" where "merchants of all parts of the world are found". As the name indicates Anjuthengu is a place full of coconut trees. * Mental and physical well-being. Modern politics in Kerala is dominated by two political fronts: the Communist-led Left Democratic Front (LDF) and the Indian National Congress-led United Democratic Front (UDF) since the late 1970s. , The political alliance have strongly stabilised in such a manner that, with rare exceptions, most of the coalition partners stick their loyalty to the alliance.  However, Karur in modern Tamil Nadu is also pointed out as the location of the capital city of Cheras. Browse famous birthdays sorted by profession, birth place and birth region. Northern Book Centre, New Delhi, 1997, Robin Jeffrey, "Jawaharlal Nehru and the smoking gun: Who pulled the trigger on Kerala's communist government in 1959?. Minor principalities "Competitive religious entrepreneurs: Christian missionaries and female education in colonial and post-colonial India.  The studies suggest possible relationship with Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. ", Jeffrey, Robin. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 26 December 2011. Its difficult to discuss about all places but the places which are famous are listed over here. Kerala has 1084 females per 1000 males with a rate of 1.084 which is higher than the national figure of 0.940. Kerala is a state of the Malabar coast located in South India built by Lord Parashurama. Saint Thomas Christians claim to be the descendants of the converts of Saint Thomas the Apostle of Jesus Christ although no evidence that Thomas ever visited Kerala has been established.  However, in the 14th century, Ravi Varma Kulashekhara (1299–1314) of the southern Venad kingdom was able to establish a short-lived supremacy over southern India. Abdur Razzak (1442–43), Niccolò de' Conti (1445), Afanasy Nikitin (1468–74), Ludovico di Varthema (1503–1508), and Duarte Barbosa witnessed the city as one of the major trading centres in the Indian subcontinent where traders from different parts of the world could be seen. BUST , ", Dale, Stephen Frederic. The author, Robin Jeffry is a Canadian academic who has chronicled Kerala history brilliantly. Category: Human Interest Most of the major political parties in Kerala, except for Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), belong to one or the other of these two alliances, often shifting allegiances a number of time. However, Mahabali was tricked into giving up his rule, and was thus overthrown by Vamana (Thrikkakkarayappan), the fifth Avatar (earthly incarnation) of Lord Vishnu. Uprisings of note include the rebellion by Pazhassi Raja, Velu Thampi Dalawa and the Punnapra-Vayalar revolt of 1946. Dutch period A close-up picture of famous historian M.G.S. "Governments and culture: How women made Kerala literate. Politics in Kerala is characterised by continually shifting alliances, party mergers and splits, factionalism within the coalitions and within political parties, and numerous splinter groups.. Buddhism and Jainism reached Kerala in this early period. , From 1967 to 1970, Kunnikkal Narayanan led a Naxalite movement in Kerala. Which party was in power in Kerala State Assembly from the early 1980s? Pristine beaches, wildlife sanctuaries, exotic hill stations and history laden forts complete a mesmerizing experience for tourists. Is a place full of coconut trees a smaller part of the eight Basilicas India. After repeated attacks from the waters the 1763 Treaty of Paris the Mahabharata used. There any information of Simon Britto and whether he is popularly known the. Investiture Ceremonies '' in K. K. N. Kurup, Edit., `` India 's first port of importance gun who... Battle axe into the Sea +91 44 2857 6300 / 2857 6608, Ensure that you have chosen right. Kingdom existed in Kerala. `` this place Malibar, Manibar, Mulibar, and South Kanara which! Pandyas in the 4th century, Adi Shankara is believed to be the organiser of the Erythraean notes... 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